Knowledge Globalization Conference, 13th International Knowledge Globalization Confernece 2018

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Energy Efficiency and SDG’s in Bangladesh Economy

Ayateena Ali, Sakib Bin Amin, Faria Tahmeen

Last modified: 2018-01-09

Abstract


. Energy plays a vital role for sustainable development. It has become important to address the increasing energy demand, the pervasive shortage of energy and the adaptation to sustainable energy development in an environmental friendly, socially sound, and economically feasible approach presents a challenge for countries in Asia and the Pacific. ESCAP promotes the integral role of energy in sustainable development and designs programmes and projects aimed at advancing energy access, renewable energy, and energy efficiency. A global economy reliant on fossil fuels and the increase of greenhouse gas emissions is creating drastic changes to our climate system. This is having a visible impact on every continent. In Bangladesh, there exists a heavy reliance on traditional fuels such as agricultural residue, tree residues, firewood and dung. The use of biomass is also seen in many households. Among the biomass users there is a progression from agricultural wastes/cow-dung to firewood as income levels increase. The over-exploitation of biomass has caused many designated forests to become deforested; every year it is becoming harder and harder for households to collect the desired quantity of biomass. The widespread use of crop residue as fuel and fodder and the collection of cow-dung from the land have resulted in a decrease in soil organic matter content.  Moreover, the evidence depicts that the improved cook-stoves that were being promoted to address the projected crisis have not played a significant role. Furthermore, the per capita energy consumption is approximately one-third that of its neighbours, India and Pakistan. Renewable energy deployment is extremely low. Since the pressure to increase the energy supply is intense, and multilateral funding has dried up, the government is constantly looking for bilateral sources. Ensuring universal access to affordable electricity by 2030 means investing in clean energy sources such as solar, wind and thermal. Adopting cost-effective standards for a wider range of technologies could also reduce the global electricity consumption by buildings and industry by 14 percent. This means avoiding roughly 1,300 mid-size power plants. Expanding infrastructure and upgrading technology to provide clean energy sources in all developing countries is a crucial goal that can both encourage growth and help the environment. Sustainable energy is one of 17 Global Goals that make up the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. An integrated approach is crucial for progress across the multiple goals. Two energy related issues that are relevant to SD are development of coal resources and opting for low efficiency gas turbines. Currently, Bangladesh has low growth of per capita income, bears external debt which stands at 21.3 billion US dollars and faces  various environmental and economical challenges. With all these hardship, government struggles to manage sufficient amount of fund for energy development. Bangladesh’s situation is typical of most developing countries, i.e., additional funds to pursue SD are not available even though the country may be fully aware of the correct strategy. The scarcity of resources can become so critical that in many cases a path opposite to that of SD is followed. Of course in many instances the policy makers are not fully aware of the SD implications of the development path they are pursuing. Therefore, capacity building of government agencies is essential in charting a sustainable energy development path.